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 ملخص مقرر حلقة البحث _ محتويات الكتاب

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Hamdy Ahmad
المدير العام للمنتدى
المدير العام للمنتدى


عدد المشاركات : 177
التقييم : 12
العمل/الترفيه : باحث تربوي في مناهج وطرق التدريس
العمر : 30
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/04/2011
ذكر

مُساهمةموضوع: ملخص مقرر حلقة البحث _ محتويات الكتاب   الأحد أبريل 03, 2011 4:46 pm

[b]Research in Education



Description



This text provides comprehensive coverage of research methods and statistics in a readable and student-friendly format.



A wide variety of methodologies-including descriptive, experimental and quasi-experimental research, historical studies, qualitative methods,
and single subject designs-are covered. A complete range of research
tools as well as descriptive and inferential statistics are also
included, making this text the definitive resource for introductory
research courses.



Research in Education is divided into three parts: Part I, “Introduction to Educational Research,” focuses on the purpose of research, hypotheses, ethics in research, developing a research problem, and writing proposals and reports; Part II, “Research Methods,” is unique in that it integrates chapters on qualitative research methods, historical research, and single-subject methods with the more typical chapters on experimental methods; and Part III, “Data Analysis,” includes both descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as examples of analyses using a computer.












Features[/b]










· Chapters on research methodology (Chs. 4-Cool use real research studies as examples of the most important designs.



· Numerous
examples and questions at the end of each chapter assist students in
understanding how concepts are related to practice.



· Chapters on qualitative research cover a variety of types: ethnography, case study, phenomenological, etc.



· Published research articles follow each of the five methodology chapters (Chs. 4-Cool.



· Chapter on computer data analysis
(Ch. 12) demonstrates how SPSS is used to calculate the statistics
explained in Chapters 10 and 11. All three data analysis chapters use
numerous examples to demonstrate statistics.



· Appendix B contains a data set that students can use in the chapters on data analysis(Chs.10-12).



· An
emphasis on validity (Ch. 9) as a unitary trait that is consistent
with professional (AERA) standards. This newer perspective views
validity in a way that many books have not yet incorporated.



· Data analysis chapters (Chs. 10 & 11) include coverage of outliers and missing data.



· Unique
discussion on how to combine qualitative and quantitative methods in a
single study (Ch. Cool shows students how these methods interrelate.


·






New to this Edition
















· Research Navigator journal
article database and writing guide is available to all adopters and
integrated with the text for ease of use through margin annotations and
end-of-chapter exercises.



· Complete
instructions on how to write a review of the literature are included
and the section on Library Research has been updated to demonstrate
technological advancements.



· Thorough update and expansion of Chapter 8, "Qualitative Research," provides a more balanced perspective to the text.



· An expanded section on meta-analysis in Chapter 5 strengthens this current methodologyfor students.



· Additional and more current research examples are used in the methods chapters (Chs. 4-Cool.



· A
web page with Transparency Masters will be available to instructors
electronically by contacting your local sales representative.


·




Table of Contents














Each chapter concludes with "Summary," "Exercises" and "References."



Preface



I. INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH: DEFINITIONS, RESEARCH PROBLEMS, PROPOSALS, AND REPORT WRITING.



1. The Meaning of Research.



Why Should I Study Research?



The Search for Knowledge



Science



The Role of Theory



Operational Definitions of Variables



The Hypothesis



The Research Hypothesis



The Null Hypothesis (Ho)



Populations Sampling



Randomness



The Simple Random Sample



Random Numbers



The Systematic Sample



The Stratified Random Sample



The Area or Cluster Sample



Nonprobability Samples



Sample Size



Purposes of Research



Fundamental or Basic Research



Applied Research



Action Research



Assessment, Evaluation, and Descriptive Research



Types of Educational Research



2. Selecting a Problem and Preparing a Research Proposal.



The Academic Research Problem



Levels of Research Projects



Sources of Problems



Evaluating the Problem



Using the Library



Finding Related Literature



References and Bibliography



Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials



The Research Proposal



The First Research Project



Submitting a Research Proposal to a Funding Agency



Thesis Proposal



Ethics in Human Experimentation



History of Research Ethics



Regulations



From Regulations to Practice.



3. The Research Report.



Style Manuals



Format of the Research Report



Main Body of the Report



References and Appendices



The Thesis or Dissertation



Style of Writing



Reference Form



Pagination



Tables



Figures



The Line Graph



The Bar Graph or Chart



The Circle, Pie, or Sector Chart



Maps



Organization Charts



Evaluating a Research Report



II. RESEARCH METHODS.



4. Historical Research.



Purpose of Histroical Reseach on American Education



History and Science



Historical Generalization



The Historical Hypothesis



Hypotheses in Educational Historical Research



Difficulties Encountered in Historical Research



Sources of Data



Primary Sources of Data



Primary Sources of Educational Data



Secondary Sources of Data



Historical Criticism



External Criticism



Internal Criticism



Examples of Topics for Educational Historical Study



Writing the Historical Report



5. Descriptive Studies: Assessment, Evaluation, and Research.



Assessment Studies



The Survey



Social Surveys



Public Opinion Surveys



National Center for Education Statistics



International Assessment



Activity Analysis



Trend Studies



Evaluation Studies



School Surveys



Program Evaluation



Assessment and Evaluation in Problem Solving



Descriptive Research



Causal Comparative Research



Correlational Research



Follow-up Research



Other Descriptive Research



Replication and Secondary Analysis



The Post Hoc Fallacy



6. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research.



Early Experimentation



Experimental and Control Groups



Variables



Independent and Dependent Variables



Confounding Variables



Controlling Extraneous Variables



Experimental Validity



Threats to Internal Experimental Validity



Threats to External Experimental Validity



Experimental Design



Pre-experimental Designs



True Experimental Designs



Quasi-Experimental Designs



Factorial Designs



7. Single-Subject Experimental Research.



General Procedures



Repeated Measurement



Baselines



Manipulating Variables



Length of Phases



Transfer of Training and Response Maintenance



Assessment



Target Behavior



Data Collection Strategies



Basic Designs



A-B-A-B Designs



Multiple Baseline Designs



Other Designs



Evaluating Data



8. Qualitative Research.



A Qualitative Research Model.



Themes of Qualitative Research



Research Questions



Theoretical Traditions



Research Strategies



Document or Content Analysis



The Case Study



Ethnographic Studies



Data Collection Techniques



Observations



Interviews



Review of Documents



Other Qualitative Data Collection Techniques



Data Analysis and Interpretation



Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research



9. Methods and Tools of Research.



Reliability and Validity of Research Tools



Quantitative Studies


Qualitative Studies



Psychological and Educational Tests and Inventories



Qualities of a Good Test and Inventory



Validity



Reliability



Economy



Interest



Types of Tests and Inventories



Achievement Tests



Aptitude Tests



Interest Inventories



Personality Inventories



Projective Devices



Observation



Validity and Reliability of Observation



Recording Observations



Systematizing Data Collection



Characteristics of Good Observation



Inquiry Forms: The Questionnaire



Closed Form



The Open Form



Improving Questionnaire Items



Characteristics of a Good Questionnaire



Preparing and Administering the Questionnaire



A Sample Questionnaire



Validity and Reliability of Questionnaires



Inquiry Forms: The Opinionnaire



Thurstone Technique



Likert Method



Semantic Differential



The Interview



Validity and Reliability of the Interview



Q Methodology



Social Scaling



Sociometry



Scoring Sociometric Choices



The Sociogram



"Guess-who" Technique



Social-distance Scale



Organization of Data Collection



Outside Criteria for Comparison



Limitations and Sources of Error



III. DATA ANALYSIS.



10. Descriptive Data Analysis.



What Is Statistics?



Parametric and Nonparametric Data



Descriptive and Inferential Analysis



The Organization of Data



Grouped Data Distributions



Statistical Measures



Measures of Central Tendency



Measures of Spread or Dispersion



Normal Distribution



Nonnormal Distributions



Interpreting the Normal Probability Distribution



Practical Applications of the Normal Curve



Measures of Relative Position: Standard Scores



The Z Score (Z)



The T Score (T)



The College Board Score (ZCb).



Stanines



Percentile Rank.



Measures of Relationship



Pearson's Product-Moment Coefficient of Correlation ®



Rank Order Correlation ®



Phi Correlation Coefficient (f)



Interpretation of a Correlation Coefficient



Outliers



Misinterpretation of the Coefficient of Correlation



Prediction



Standard Error of Estimate



A Note of Caution



11. Inferential Data Analysis.



Statistical Inference



The Central Limit Theorem



Parametric Tests



Testing Statistical Significance



The Significance of the Difference between the Means of Two Independent Groups



The Null Hypothesis (Ho)



The Level of Significance



Decision Making



Two-Tailed and One-Tailed Tests of Significance



Degrees of Freedom



A One-Sample Z Test



Student's Distribution (t)



Significance of the Difference between Two Small Sample Independent Means



Homogeneity of Variances



Significance of the Difference between the Means of Two Matched or correlated Groups (Nonindependent Samples)



Statistical Significance of a Coefficient of correlation



Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)



Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Partial Correlation



Multiple Regression and Correlation



Nonparametric Tests



The Chi Square Test (c2)



The Mann-Whitney Test



Outliers and Missing Data



12. Computer Data Analysis.



The Computer



Data Organization



Computer Analysis of Data



Descriptive Statistics



Graphs



Multiple Regression



ANOVA



Results from Analyses of Appendix B Data



Statistics on the World Wide Web



Qualitative Analyses Using Computer Software



Appendix A: Statistical Formulas and Symbols.



Appendix B: Sample Data.



Appendix C: Percentage of Area Lying Between the Mean and Successive Standard Deviation Units Under the Normal Curve.



Appendix D: Critical Values for Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation ®.



Appendix E: Critical Values of Student's Distribution (t).



Appendix F: Abridged Table of Critical Values for Chi Square.



Appendix G: Critical Values of the F Distribution.



Appendix H: Research Report Evaluation.



Appendix I: Answers to Statistics Exercises.





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